When you update Magento 2, Magento extension or switching git branches on your dev environment, sometimes you can get the error:

The following modules are outdated: Vendor_Module schema: current version - x.x.x, required version - z.z.z 

To solve this issue, please do next:

1. Try to get the latest extension code. Run CLI command in the Magento root directory:

composer install

If you get troubles with running this command, then just skip it, and move to step 2.

2. Try to upgrade your database. Run CLI command:

php bin/magento setup:upgrade

3. If step 1 and 2 didn't help, then navigate to your database and run this SQL Query (don't forget to change the text in bold):

UPDATE `table_prfix_setup_module` 
SET schema_version="z.z.z", data_version="z.z.z"
WHERE  module="Vendor_Module";

"table_prfix_" can be found in app/etc/env.php, note that it can be empty.