If you receive the error:

Please upgrade your database: Run "bin/magento setup:upgrade" from the Magento root directory. 
The following modules are outdated:
Vendor_Module schema: current version - x.x.x, required version - z.z.z
Vendor_Module data: current version - x.x.x., required version - z.z.z

And you have already run these commands:

composer update vendor/module-name
bin/magento setup:upgrade

Please navigate to your database and run this SQL Query (don't forget to change the text in bold):

UPDATE `table_prfix_setup_module` 
SET schema_version="z.z.z", data_version="z.z.z"
WHERE  module="Vendor_Module";